Automotive Expert Witnesses

Automotive expert witnesses and consultants listed here may be able to form expert opinions, draft expert witness reports, provide expert witness testimony at deposition and/or trial as or serve as consulting (non-testifying) experts on automotive. The automotive expert witness listings on this page are typically from fields/areas of expertise such as: Accident Reconstruction, Automotive, Business Damages, Construction, Economics, Electrical Engineering, Engineering, Financial, Mechanical Engineering, OSHA, Products Liability, Software Engineering, Transportation, and Warnings & Labels.

Wesley D Hoy, PE Hoy and Miller Consulting, LLC

Automotive, Accident Reconstruction - Vehicle fire,Heavy-duty truck,rechargeable cells,Codes and standards, motorcycles,crash reconstruction,tires, brakes,motor home,vehicle preventative maintenance and inspection,vehicle recall, black box download,seat belts,HVAC
Wesley D. Hoy, P.E. is a Principal of Hoy & Miller Consulting, LLC, an authorized engineering firm that provides expert services and opinion to the legal and insurance industries. Mr. Hoy's areas of court-qualified expertise include automotive maintenance, automotive systems, automotive system failure analysis, vehicle fires, crash reconstruction and automotive electronics and electronic control systems. As an ASE certified automobile and heavy-duty truck master technician, as well as a register mechanical engineer, Mr. Hoy has an extensive practical background in automotive preventive maintenance and repair, tires, brakes, steering and suspension, vehicle electronics, seat belts, black box download and interpretation, and vehicle fires. Additionally, Mr. Hoy has an extensive background in vehicle crash reconstruction, including pedestrians, bicycles, trucks, motorcycles and automobiles, and has consulted on hundreds of cases. A partial list of specific cases that Mr. Hoy has ...

Ioannis Kanellakopoulos, PhD Oraton Consulting

Automotive Engineering, Telecommunications - Automotive Systems, ADAS, Autonomous Vehicles, Self-Driving Cars, Adaptive Cruise Control, Blind Spot Monitoring, Lane Keeping, Automotive Software, Automotive Electronics, Collision Avoidance, Telecommunications, Networking, Carrier Ethernet, DSL, Wi-Fi, 5G, Wireless Transceivers, Telecom Standards
Dr. Kanellakopoulos is a technology leader with 25+ years of experience in research, development, operations, and administration, in both academia and industry. He is the author or co-author of one book, 6 book chapters, 24 articles in refereed technical journals, 60 papers in refereed technical conferences, and multiple standards contributions. He was the plenary speaker at major technical conferences, and an invited speaker at more than 40 industrial and academic venues in 12 countries across 4 continents. He has significant expert witness experience in patent infringement and product liability cases in the automotive and telecommunication areas; 100% of his cases resulted in a win or a very favorable settlement for his clients. In 2017, he was the lead expert witness in a case that resulted in a $25M jury award for his clients; this decision was later upheld on appeal. His deep technical expertise allows him to analyze patents and products in detail, and explain clearly (in expe...

Stuart Landsverk NorthStar Partners

Mesa, Arizona
Automotive, Financial - Automotive, Automobile dealerships, Auto Theft, Best Practices, Property and Security, Insurance, Diminished Value Cases, Automobile Dealership Policies & Procedures, Auto Financing, Trademarks, Automobile Sales Finance Act, Improper Disclosures, New & Used Automobile Transactions
Mr. Landsverk has been a veteran of the automotive dealership industry since 1982 and holds the designation of the certified master dealer, one of the highest designations available to an automotive dealer. In his 35+ year automotive career, he has worked his way through the business in sales, sales manager, finance director, used vehicle manager, general sales manager, general manager, managing partner, and dealer principal. Stuart has worked with clients like hedge funds, law firms, peer groups, and venture capitalists that want to learn more about the automobile business or automotive finance business. Stuart has been deposed as an expert witness, provided counsel, expert reports, and testimony regarding hiring, firing, Auto Financing, GAP policies, Automobile theft, property security, P&L, pay plans, property damage, trademarks, auto dealer security measures, auto dealership best practices, F&I, consumer fraud auto dealer inventory practices, diminished value claims, dealersh...

Jack G Cohen

Westlake Village, California
Automotive, Transportation - Automotive, Automobiles, Dealerships, Auto insurance claims, Auto evaluations, Auto appraisals, Automobile rentals & heavy equipment rentals, diminished values, Private money lending in the real estate industry, credit file and qualifications, appraisals, evictions, foreclosures, industry standards
Jack Cohen has been involved in the car business with 30 years experience, wholesaling and retailing, current dealer license, owner of an automobile finance company, treasurer of an HOA board, running several dealerships and franchises. Currently holds a dealer license. Expert testimony regarding: Plaintiff & Defense / Consulting with Attorneys, Dealers, Consumers, Insurance Companies / Appraisals / Industry Standards / Dealer Fraud / Vehicles Sales and Leasing / Dealership Practices / New and Used Auto Transactions / Auto Warranty Issues / Finance Documentation and Analysis / Lender-Dealer Relationships / Wholesale & Retail / Diminished Value Cases.

William D Guentzler, PhD Forensics International

La Quinta, California
Automotive, Transportation - Automotive, ATV/ATC, Motorcycles, Golf Carts, RV, Motorhomes, Vehicle Fires, Braking Systems, Cooling, Fuel Systems, Steering, Suspension, Gas, Diesel, Propane, CNG, LNG, Electrical, Ignition, Tires & Valves, Automotive Engineering, Failure Analysis,
Dr. Guentzler, a Professor Emeritus of the College of Engineering at San Diego State University, has over thirty-six (36) years’ experience as an Expert Witness, serving in over 700 court cases Nationally, involving Automobiles, Trucks, ATC’s, ATV’s, Motorhomes and Motorcycles. He is well known for his expertise in Braking Systems, Engine and Electrical issues, as well as Fire Cause and Origin.

John C Peck Bay2Sierra Silicon Services, Inc.

San Francisco, California
Electrical Engineering, Software Engineering - Source code review, Patent, Copyright, Trade secret, Digital design, ASIC, FPGA, CPLD, SoC, RTL, EDA, Graphics, Microprocessor, Embedded systems, Automotive, Network protocol, Verilog, VHDL, Prior Art Search, Validity analysis, Circuits, Linux, Swift, Java, C, C++, Python, Assembly, Pcb Layout,
John Peck has over 25 years of experience as a software and hardware engineer with over 10 years of experience as a technical analyst for hardware and software intellectual property cases. He has drafted numerous claim charts and prepared expert reports for software copyright, trade secret, and patent litigation. He is comfortable researching and expressing complex technical issues. He is experienced with source code review and able to explain its operation in ways that most people can understand. To date, John Peck has consulted on a total of 25 cases. - Provided expert testimony once at deposition and twice at trial - Consultant and analyst for multiple ITC 337 investigations - Software source code analysis for litigation including alleged copyright violation and trade secret theft - Hardware HDL/RTL source code and schematic analysis for litigation matters including patent infringement - Patent evidence of use - Reverse engineering of software on mobile, desktop, and server p...

Mingxi Zheng, MS, PE BEAR INC.

San Francisco, California
Products Liability, Mechanical Engineering - Accident Reconstruction, Failure Analysis, FMEA, Material Characterization and Testing, Material Properties, Metallurgy, Manufacturing, Aviation & Aerospace, 3D printing, Automotive, Slip Trip & Fall, Warnings & Labels, Oil and Gas, Product Development, Laboratories & Testing
Mingxi is a Licensed Professional Mechanical Engineer in the state of California with expertise in materials development and mechanical engineering across a broad range of industries. With a specialty in metallurgy, fracture mechanics and failure analysis, she has experience in materials testing and process development in the aerospace and manufacturing industries, Prior to joining Berkeley Engineering And Research, Inc., she held engineering roles at SpaceX, Virgin Orbit, and other early-stage startups, where she worked on integrating Mil, ASTM, ISO, and NASA specifications into the product development process during transitions from R&D to production. In addition to knowledge of traditional materials and processing methods, she has developed characterization methods for additive manufacturing of metallic and polymeric materials. Her skills take a big picture approach, centering on the intersection of materials science and mechanical design, among other fields. Projects have inclu...

Kristopher J. Seluga, M.S., PE Technology Associates, LLC

Stratford, Connecticut
Accident Reconstruction, Products Liability - Mechanical Engineering, Biomechanics, Automotive, Construction, Engineering, Failure Analysis, Forensic Science, Human Factors, Motorcycle, Premises Liability, Safety, Slip Trip & Fall
Our staff of experienced engineers are ready to apply established scientific and engineering knowledge and techniques to your case. Our staff has published hundreds of papers, served on national ANSI standards committees and assisted over 2,600 attorneys and insurance agents settle or try their cases. Because the laws of physics and principles of engineering are universal, we are able to investigate and opine on a wide range of topics including motor vehicle crashes, heavy machinery, consumer products, construction sites, falls and biomechanical analyses. In each case, we assist our clients by determining, in as much detail as possible, how and why an accident occurred and communicating those finding in a clear and concise manner.

Gary E Kilpatrick, PE, DFE The Kilpatrick Group, PA

Florida
Mechanical Engineering, OSHA - Crash Reconstruction, ATV, ROV, UTV, Automotive, Motorcycle, School Bus, Tractor Trailers, Industrial Process Equipment, Product Defect, Failure Analysis, Forklift, Crane, Mobile Elevating Work Platform, Aeral Lift, Personel Lift, Amusement Park Rides, OSHA, Industrial Accidents
Gary E. Kilpatrick, PE, DFE at The Kilpatrick Group is a board certified Forensic Engineer through the National Academy of Forensic Engineers (NAFE) and is a Diplomat Forensics Engineer (DFE). Gary provides forensic engineering services to law firms and insurance companies in the following areas: Product Defect and Failure Analyses. OSHA 29CFR 1910, 1926 and 1928 regulations. Forklift Accidents. Crane Accidents. Industrial Process Equipment Accidents. Amusement Park Ride Accidenst. Motor Vehicle Crash Reconstruction. School Bus Safety and Crash Reconstruction. Tractor Trailer Crash Reconstruction. Motorcycle Accident Crash Reconstruction. ATV/ROV/UTV Crash Reconstruction. Mobile Elevating Work Platform Accident Investigations. I Earned a BS Degree in Mechanical Design Engineering from North Carolina State University with an emphasis in Machine Design Engineering and Automotive Design Engineering. I have over 20 years of industrial work experience five years of which I spent ...

Gary E Kilpatrick, PE, DFE The Kilpatrick Group, PA

Georgia
Mechanical Engineering, OSHA - Crash Reconstruction, ATV, ROV, UTV, Automotive, Motorcycle, School Bus, Tractor Trailers, Industrial Process Equipment, Product Defect, Failure Analysis, Forklift, Crane, Mobile Elevating Work Platform, Aeral Lift, Personel Lift, Amusement Park Rides, OSHA, Industrial Accidents
Gary E. Kilpatrick, PE, DFE at The Kilpatrick Group is a board certified Forensic Engineer through the National Academy of Forensic Engineers (NAFE) and is a Diplomat Forensics Engineer (DFE). Gary provides forensic engineering services to law firms and insurance companies in the following areas: Product Defect and Failure Analyses. OSHA 29CFR 1910, 1926 and 1928 regulations. Forklift Accidents. Crane Accidents. Industrial Process Equipment Accidents. Amusement Park Ride Accidenst. Motor Vehicle Crash Reconstruction. School Bus Safety and Crash Reconstruction. Tractor Trailer Crash Reconstruction. Motorcycle Accident Crash Reconstruction. ATV/ROV/UTV Crash Reconstruction. Mobile Elevating Work Platform Accident Investigations. I Earned a BS Degree in Mechanical Design Engineering from North Carolina State University with an emphasis in Machine Design Engineering and Automotive Design Engineering. I have over 20 years of industrial work experience five years of which I spent ...

Frederic B. Jennings Jr., Ph.D EconoLogistics

Ipswich, Massachusetts
Economics, Business Damages - Accounting, Environmental, Management, Automotive, Fraud, Statistics, Behavioral and Social Sciences, Insurance, Transportation, Appraisal and Valuation, Legal

James M. Miller, PE, PhD J.M. Miller Engineering, Inc.

Ann Arbor, Michigan
Engineering, Warnings & Labels - Accident Reconstruction, Agriculture, Automotive, Chemical Hazards (Asbestos, Diacetyl, etc.), Explosions, Electrical, Environmental, Hazard Communication, Human Factors, Instructions, Labels, Warnings, OSHA, Premise Liability, Product Liability, Vapes and E-cigarettes, Battery Fires, Child Safety
Dr. Miller is an Emeritus Professor at the University of Michigan and a registered professional engineer and consultant with over 35 years of experience as an expert witness. He specializes in warnings, labeling, and instruction manuals, consumer product design, process safety, explosions and fire science, chemical hazards (diacetyl, asbestos, benzene, etc.), machine guarding, vehicle visibility, tractor egress/ingress, slip and fall prevention, recreational vehicles (ATVs, boats, and personal watercraft), and compliance with safety standards (OSHA, MSDS, CPSC, ANSI, ASTM, UL, etc.) Miller Engineering also has a staff with degrees in the Mechanical, Chemical, Agricultural, Industrial, and Human Factors fields of engineering. Recently, Dr. Miller has been handling cases involving battery fires, particularly with respect to e-cigarettes, vaporizers, or "vapes". Dr. Miller has authored a chapter titled "Hazard Communication and Right-to-Know: Regulatory Issues" in the Safety Enginee...

David M Hallman, MS, PE Hallman Engineering LLC

Maple Grove, Minnesota
Mechanical Engineering, Accident Reconstruction - Automotive, Vehicle Fires, Crash Data, Failure Analysis, Origin and Cause, Vehicle Mechanical, Farm Equipment, Expert Witness, CDR, EDR, Heavy Truck Data, Motorcycle Crash, Infotainment
I am a Licensed Professional Engineer in ten states with over twenty-nine years combined experience in materials research, mechanical engineering and design, crash testing research and crash investigation and reconstruction, vehicle fire research and investigation, automotive mechanics and forensic mechanical and materials investigation. I hold degrees in mechanical engineering (BS) and materials science and engineering (MS). I work on a wide variety of forensic mechanical and forensic metallurgical investigations. These investigations have included but are not limited to an elevator failure involving materials and design issues, a personal injury involving a paper shredder, multiple cases involving farm equipment and personal injuries, machine guarding cases, chair collapse cases, bolted joint failures, patient lifter failures, vehicle hand control issues, and tipped telehandler and boom crane cases. My automotive background coupled with my two degrees, extensive testing and rese...

Gary E Kilpatrick, PE, DFE The Kilpatrick Group, PA

New York
Mechanical Engineering, OSHA - Crash Reconstruction, ATV, ROV, UTV, Automotive, Motorcycle, School Bus, Tractor Trailers, Industrial Process Equipment, Product Defect, Failure Analysis, Forklift, Crane, Mobile Elevating Work Platform, Aeral Lift, Personel Lift, Amusement Park Rides, OSHA, Industrial Accidents
Gary E. Kilpatrick, PE, DFE at The Kilpatrick Group is a board certified Forensic Engineer through the National Academy of Forensic Engineers (NAFE) and is a Diplomat Forensics Engineer (DFE). Gary provides forensic engineering services to law firms and insurance companies in the following areas: Product Defect and Failure Analyses. OSHA 29CFR 1910, 1926 and 1928 regulations. Forklift Accidents. Crane Accidents. Industrial Process Equipment Accidents. Amusement Park Ride Accidenst. Motor Vehicle Crash Reconstruction. School Bus Safety and Crash Reconstruction. Tractor Trailer Crash Reconstruction. Motorcycle Accident Crash Reconstruction. ATV/ROV/UTV Crash Reconstruction. Mobile Elevating Work Platform Accident Investigations. I Earned a BS Degree in Mechanical Design Engineering from North Carolina State University with an emphasis in Machine Design Engineering and Automotive Design Engineering. I have over 20 years of industrial work experience five years of which I spent ...

Kristopher J. Seluga, M.S., PE Technology Associates, LLC

New York
Accident Reconstruction, Products Liability - Mechanical Engineering, Biomechanics, Automotive, Construction, Engineering, Failure Analysis, Forensic Science, Human Factors, Motorcycle, Premises Liability, Safety, Slip Trip & Fall
Our staff of experienced engineers are ready to apply established scientific and engineering knowledge and techniques to your case. Our staff has published hundreds of papers, served on national ANSI standards committees and assisted over 2,600 attorneys and insurance agents settle or try their cases. Because the laws of physics and principles of engineering are universal, we are able to investigate and opine on a wide range of topics including motor vehicle crashes, heavy machinery, consumer products, construction sites, falls and biomechanical analyses. In each case, we assist our clients by determining, in as much detail as possible, how and why an accident occurred and communicating those finding in a clear and concise manner.

Gary E Kilpatrick, PE, DFE The Kilpatrick Group, PA

Jamestown, North Carolina
Mechanical Engineering, OSHA - Crash Reconstruction, ATV, ROV, UTV, Automotive, Motorcycle, School Bus, Tractor Trailers, Industrial Process Equipment, Product Defect, Failure Analysis, Forklift, Crane, Mobile Elevating Work Platform, Aeral Lift, Personel Lift, Amusement Park Rides, OSHA, Industrial Accidents
Gary E. Kilpatrick, PE, DFE at The Kilpatrick Group is a board certified Forensic Engineer through the National Academy of Forensic Engineers (NAFE) and is a Diplomat Forensics Engineer (DFE). Gary provides forensic engineering services to law firms and insurance companies in the following areas: Product Defect and Failure Analyses. OSHA 29CFR 1910, 1926 and 1928 regulations. Forklift Accidents. Crane Accidents. Industrial Process Equipment Accidents. Amusement Park Ride Accidenst. Motor Vehicle Crash Reconstruction. School Bus Safety and Crash Reconstruction. Tractor Trailer Crash Reconstruction. Motorcycle Accident Crash Reconstruction. ATV/ROV/UTV Crash Reconstruction. Mobile Elevating Work Platform Accident Investigations. I Earned a BS Degree in Mechanical Design Engineering from North Carolina State University with an emphasis in Machine Design Engineering and Automotive Design Engineering. I have over 20 years of industrial work experience five years of which I spent ...

Michael A. Pollock, P.E. Cogent Experts, LLC

Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania
Engineering, Construction - Standard of care, construction defect, construction delay, mechanical engineering, HVAC, Project Management, schedule analysis, manufacturing, product liability, power, refrigeration, fire, explosion, automotive, forensics, failure analysis, accident reconstruction, intellectual property, patent
Education • Drexel University, B.S. Mechanical Engineering, Cum Laude – 1998 • Mechanical Systems, Machinery, Thermodynamics, HVACR. Electives – Psychology • Completed Drexel’s E4 Program, Technology with Practical Applications Registrations • Professional Engineer: PA (PE075410) • American Bar Association (ABA) – Construction Forum • Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Clean Air Act Certification – Universal (includes Chillers, HVAC & Refrigeration) • United States Patent & Trademark Office Registered (USPTO) Professional Affiliations • American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) • American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, Air Conditioning Engineering (ASHRAE) • American Arbitration Association (AAA) • Certified Energy Manager (CEM) • Product Developers and the Manufacturers Association PDMA Forensic Consulting Experience Warehouse Distribution Facility – Maryland - Evaluated a $10M (million) claim relating to purported construction defect claims by the 60...

Gary E Kilpatrick, PE, DFE The Kilpatrick Group, PA

South Carolina
Mechanical Engineering, OSHA - Crash Reconstruction, ATV, ROV, UTV, Automotive, Motorcycle, School Bus, Tractor Trailers, Industrial Process Equipment, Product Defect, Failure Analysis, Forklift, Crane, Mobile Elevating Work Platform, Aeral Lift, Personel Lift, Amusement Park Rides, OSHA, Industrial Accidents
Gary E. Kilpatrick, PE, DFE at The Kilpatrick Group is a board certified Forensic Engineer through the National Academy of Forensic Engineers (NAFE) and is a Diplomat Forensics Engineer (DFE). Gary provides forensic engineering services to law firms and insurance companies in the following areas: Product Defect and Failure Analyses. OSHA 29CFR 1910, 1926 and 1928 regulations. Forklift Accidents. Crane Accidents. Industrial Process Equipment Accidents. Amusement Park Ride Accidenst. Motor Vehicle Crash Reconstruction. School Bus Safety and Crash Reconstruction. Tractor Trailer Crash Reconstruction. Motorcycle Accident Crash Reconstruction. ATV/ROV/UTV Crash Reconstruction. Mobile Elevating Work Platform Accident Investigations. I Earned a BS Degree in Mechanical Design Engineering from North Carolina State University with an emphasis in Machine Design Engineering and Automotive Design Engineering. I have over 20 years of industrial work experience five years of which I spent ...

Gary E Kilpatrick, PE, DFE The Kilpatrick Group, PA

Tennessee
Mechanical Engineering, OSHA - Crash Reconstruction, ATV, ROV, UTV, Automotive, Motorcycle, School Bus, Tractor Trailers, Industrial Process Equipment, Product Defect, Failure Analysis, Forklift, Crane, Mobile Elevating Work Platform, Aeral Lift, Personel Lift, Amusement Park Rides, OSHA, Industrial Accidents
Gary E. Kilpatrick, PE, DFE at The Kilpatrick Group is a board certified Forensic Engineer through the National Academy of Forensic Engineers (NAFE) and is a Diplomat Forensics Engineer (DFE). Gary provides forensic engineering services to law firms and insurance companies in the following areas: Product Defect and Failure Analyses. OSHA 29CFR 1910, 1926 and 1928 regulations. Forklift Accidents. Crane Accidents. Industrial Process Equipment Accidents. Amusement Park Ride Accidenst. Motor Vehicle Crash Reconstruction. School Bus Safety and Crash Reconstruction. Tractor Trailer Crash Reconstruction. Motorcycle Accident Crash Reconstruction. ATV/ROV/UTV Crash Reconstruction. Mobile Elevating Work Platform Accident Investigations. I Earned a BS Degree in Mechanical Design Engineering from North Carolina State University with an emphasis in Machine Design Engineering and Automotive Design Engineering. I have over 20 years of industrial work experience five years of which I spent ...

Larry W. Busby, ACTAR #2885 Primary Investigations

Austin, Texas
Accident Reconstruction - ACTAR, Automotive, Pedestrian, Commercial Vehicle, Motorcycle, Event Data Recorder Retrieval/Analysis, 3D Animation, Bicycle, Crush Analysis, Speed Determination, Time/Distance Analysis, Accident Site Mapping
Larry W. Busby is the owner and manager of Primary Investigations, a private investigation firm (TX #A17699), established in 2012. Larry was certified by the Accreditation Commission for Traffic Accident Reconstruction in 2015 and has extensive training, from the Northwestern Center for Public Safety, the Institute of Police Technology and Management, the University of Tulsa in the reconstruction of automobile, pedestrian, bicycle and commercial vehicle accidents. Larry is a member of several professional organizations including TAARS, IATAI, NAPARS, TALI, CALI, and FALI and is certified in Bosch event data recorder retrieval and analysis. Primary Investigations can produce high quality 3D animations based on laser scan data from the accident scene depicting the accident, sight obstructions and other features unique to the accident. Additionally, as the owner of Delta Land Surveying and as a Registered Professional Land Surveyor licensed in NM, TX, CO and OK Larry is uniquely qu...

Gary E Kilpatrick, PE, DFE The Kilpatrick Group, PA

West Virginia
Mechanical Engineering, OSHA - Crash Reconstruction, ATV, ROV, UTV, Automotive, Motorcycle, School Bus, Tractor Trailers, Industrial Process Equipment, Product Defect, Failure Analysis, Forklift, Crane, Mobile Elevating Work Platform, Aeral Lift, Personel Lift, Amusement Park Rides, OSHA, Industrial Accidents
Gary E. Kilpatrick, PE, DFE at The Kilpatrick Group is a board certified Forensic Engineer through the National Academy of Forensic Engineers (NAFE) and is a Diplomat Forensics Engineer (DFE). Gary provides forensic engineering services to law firms and insurance companies in the following areas: Product Defect and Failure Analyses. OSHA 29CFR 1910, 1926 and 1928 regulations. Forklift Accidents. Crane Accidents. Industrial Process Equipment Accidents. Amusement Park Ride Accidenst. Motor Vehicle Crash Reconstruction. School Bus Safety and Crash Reconstruction. Tractor Trailer Crash Reconstruction. Motorcycle Accident Crash Reconstruction. ATV/ROV/UTV Crash Reconstruction. Mobile Elevating Work Platform Accident Investigations. I Earned a BS Degree in Mechanical Design Engineering from North Carolina State University with an emphasis in Machine Design Engineering and Automotive Design Engineering. I have over 20 years of industrial work experience five years of which I spent ...