Pharmacist Expert Witness Listings

Welcome to our Pharmacist expert directory. Browse the profiles below to find the right expert witness in Pharmacist for your case. Our SEAK Expert Witness Database is always free to search.

SEAK, Inc. is The Expert Witness Training Company. We have trained thousands of expert witnesses, through our seminars, on-site corporate training, assisting retaining counsel to prepare their witnesses, and one-on-one training for individual experts. For additional information please visit testifyingtraining.com

Unable to find the right expert? For personalized assistance in locating an expert witness, please click here.

Jimmy Skaggs, PharmD JG Skaggs & Associates

Pharmacist Expert Witness, Pharmacology- Clinical Expert Witness - Pharmacy Practice, Anticoagulation, Pain management, Pharmacokinetics, Inpatient Pharmacy, Standards of Care, Patient Counseling/Education, Medication History, Medication errors, Drug information, Adverse drug reactions, Immunization
I am a licensed practicing pharmacist with experience in retail pharmacy and inpatient pharmacy. I am experienced training pharmacists and technicians. I also have immunization certification. Retail experience includes independently owned pharmacies and a national chain drug store. Inpatient pharmacy experience inludes work as a staffing pharmacist and as covering for five inpatient rehabilitation hospitals across the state. Inpatient duties include antibiotic dosing, warfarin dosing and monitoring, order verification, patient education, monitoring and documenting medication errors, and providing pharmacy recommendations as is necessary. I have experience in preparing formulary review for P and T committee presentations. I have precepted pharmacy students for two Colleges of Pharmacy, UAMS COllege of Pharmacy and Harding College of Pharmacy in retail and hospital pharmacies. I am experienced in preparing expert witness reports and letters of merit, document review, and ...
Click for Full Listing and Contact Info

Rodney G. Richmond, MS, PharmD, BCGP, FASCP The Mackenzie Group, LLC

Searcy, Arkansas
Pharmacist Expert Witness, Pharmacology- Clinical Expert Witness - Nursing homes, geriatrics, alcohol, recreational drugs, drug interactions, opioid pain management, hospital pharmacy, drug levels, medication errors, pharmacy law, toxicology, pharmacy standards of care
Pharmacy Standards of Care (nursing home/long-term care, acute care, hospice, home health); Pain Management; Geriatric Drug Therapy Management (Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, psychoactive medications, psychotropic drug reactions, polypharmacy); Clinical Pharmacy Services (drug information services, patient assessment & counseling); Drug Safety/Misadventure (interactions, adverse reactions, medication errors, death/overdose, product liability); Pharmacology (causal relationship between drug exposure and subsequent effects, pharmacoepidemiology, pharmacokinetics); Pharmacy Operations (3rd-party payment, managed care, controlled substance/narcotics, drug distribution systems, pharmacoeconomics). Associate Professor, Pharmacy Practice (2011- ) Harding University College of Pharmacy Clinical Consultant Pharmacist (1995-2011) The Mackenzie Group, LLC Assistant Professor, Pharmacy and Therapeutics (1992-94) University of Pittsburgh Clinical Assistant Professor (1991-92) Yale University Sch...
Click for Full Listing and Contact Info

Jimmy Skaggs, PharmD JG Skaggs & Associates

Benton, Arkansas
Pharmacist Expert Witness, Pharmacology- Clinical Expert Witness - Pharmacy Practice, Anticoagulation, Pain management, Pharmacokinetics, Inpatient Pharmacy, Standards of Care, Patient Counseling/Education, Medication History, Medication errors, Drug information, Adverse drug reactions, Immunization
I am a licensed practicing pharmacist with experience in retail pharmacy and inpatient pharmacy. I am experienced training pharmacists and technicians. I also have immunization certification. Retail experience includes independently owned pharmacies and a national chain drug store. Inpatient pharmacy experience inludes work as a staffing pharmacist and as covering for five inpatient rehabilitation hospitals across the state. Inpatient duties include antibiotic dosing, warfarin dosing and monitoring, order verification, patient education, monitoring and documenting medication errors, and providing pharmacy recommendations as is necessary. I have experience in preparing formulary review for P and T committee presentations. I have precepted pharmacy students for two Colleges of Pharmacy, UAMS COllege of Pharmacy and Harding College of Pharmacy in retail and hospital pharmacies. I am experienced in preparing expert witness reports and letters of merit, document review, and ...
Click for Full Listing and Contact Info

Melissa J. Durham, PharmD Forensic Med Group

Glendora, California
Pharmacist Expert Witness - Clinical Pharmacy, Opioid Abuse, Pain Management, Travel Medicine, Immunization, Diabetes, Anticoagulation, Smoking Cessation, Latent TB, Medication Management, Vaccine Controversies
Melissa Jean Durham, Pharm.D., received her Doctor of Pharmacy from the USC School of Pharmacy in 2007 and her license from the California State Board of Pharmacy as an Advance Practice Pharmacist in 018. She has also received specialized training in Pain Management, Opioids Abuse, Travel Medicine, Immunization and Diabetes. Dr. Durham is an Associate Professor of Clinical Pharmacy at USC School of Pharmacy and prior to her association with USC, she was a practicing pharmacist at the Brent-Air Pharmacy. Dr Durham has been featured as an expert in Pain Management in various TV and radio shows and has presented several lectures to professional associations on the Opioid Crisis, such as “The Role of Pharmacists in the Safe Prescribing of Opioids: Having the Tough Talks with Patients and Prescribers” and “Stuck in the Middle: Pharmacists and the Opioid Crisis”. She also plays an active role in the California Pharmacists’ Association and the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy
Click for Full Listing and Contact Info

Stanley W Goldenberg, RPH, FASCP Strom and Associates, LLC

Beverly Hills, California
Pharmacist Expert Witness, Pharmacology- Clinical Expert Witness - Nursing Homes, Consultant Pharmacist, Board of Pharmacy, Long-Term Care, American Society Consultant Pharmacist, Geriatric, Senior Care Pharmacist, Nursing Home Medication, Emergency Medication, Pain Medicine-Management
Stan served for eight years on the California Board of Pharmacy (BoP), 2001-2008, and was president of that board from 2004-2006. During his BoP service he was deposed and acted as an expert witness on behalf of the Board of Pharmacy for the California Attorney General’s Office. His experience includes ownership of Commerce Pharmacy, a closed-door institutional long-term care pharmacy from 1970-1996, which grew to service 13,000 nursing-home beds and from 1980-1990 he owned and operated 13 nursing homes (1700 beds) in the Los Angeles area. Today, Stan is the president of Downey Plaza Pharmacy Long-Term Care Division and Director of Long Term Care for ModernHealthLTC Pharmacy, and an Expert Witness in Pharmacy. He is currently a board member of the California Council for the Advancement of Pharmacy (CCAP – Long-Term Care Rx Advocacy Group) and is also a Fellow of the American Society of Consultant Pharmacists. He is a member of the California Pharmacists Association, the America...
Click for Full Listing and Contact Info

Jack H Raber, Pharm.D. Clinipharm Services

Long Beach, California
Pharmacist Expert Witness, Pharmacology- Clinical Expert Witness - Pharmacy Law, Pharmacy Practice, Pharmacy Standards, Prescription Benefits, Prescription Fraud, Pharmacist Discipline, Pharmacy Malpractice, Adverse Drug Reactions, Hospital Pharmacy, Nursing Home Pharmacy, Controlled Substances, Drug Interactions
I am a pharmacist with over 40 years of both practice and management experience in a variety of clinical settings. Since 1993, I have provided expert witness services and litigation support in over 150 cases throughout the country in matters specifically related to pharmacy malpractice, pharmaceuticals-related hospital and medical malpractice, prescription benefit fraud, waste, and abuse, as well as assistance in disciplinary proceedings against pharmacists and pharmacies. I have also participated in compliance audits of federally-sponsored health plans where it pertains to pharmaceutical services. I am currently an Adjunct Assistant Professor-Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Economics and Policy, University of Southern California School of Pharmacy. My areas of expertise for teaching purposes include site-specific pharmacy practice guidelines, community pharmacy risk management, hospital pharmacy risk management, prescription drug benefits, pharmacy services in...
Click for Full Listing and Contact Info

Holly A Strom, BS, RPh Strom and Associates

Los Angeles, California
Pharmacist Expert Witness - fraudulent controlled drug/narcotic prescriptions, prescription drug abuse, California pharmacy practice, prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMP), CURES, corresponding responsibility, wrongful death, drug overdose.
Holly served 8.5 years on the California Board of Pharmacy, 1993-2001. She was President of that board 1997-1998. She was also a member of the University of Southern California Pharmacy School's Board of Councilors. Currently, she serves on the Board of the Institute for Pharmacy In the Public Interest and is co-chair of the Safe Prescribing/Pharmacy Practice Action Team for SafeMedLA, Los Angeles County's Opioid Abuse Reduction Coalition. Holly is a member of the America Society for Pharmacy Law (ASPL), the California Society of Health-System Pharmacists, the American Society for Health-System Pharmacists, the American Pharmacists Association, the California Pharmacists Association and the Academy of Managed Care Pharmacy.
Click for Full Listing and Contact Info

Robert S. Litman, RPh, CPh, BCGP Ultimed Health Advisors Inc.

Miami, Florida
Long Term Care Expert Witness, Pharmacist Expert Witness - Nursing Home Pharmacist, Retail Pharmacy, Retail Pharmacist, Hospital Pharmacist, Long Term Care Pharmacy, Long Term Care Pharmacist, Pharmacy Instructor, Pharmacist Educator, Pharmacy, Consultant Pharmacist, Consultant Pharmacy, Pharmacy Professor
Robert S. Litman, R.Ph.,C.Ph.,CGP, is a practicing Board Certified Geriatric Consultant Pharmacist and is certified in Herbal Therapies. He has 38 years of experience as a practicing pharmacist in Florida: 30 years of Clinical Pharmacy practice in Nursing Homes as Director of Consultant Pharmacy Services; 19 years in retail practice as a Pharmacy Manager 2 years in clinical hospital practice. Robert serves as an Associate Professor of Clinical and Advanced Clinical Geriatrics at Nova Southeastern University, College of Pharmacy. He is also affiliated with Ohio State University, and Palm Beach Atlantic University, Colleges of Pharmacy. Bob has served as an expert witness, in numerous cases regarding Pharmacology, Drug Overdosage, Pharmacy Operations (retail and long-term care), Allergic Reactions, Pharmacy Dispensing Errors, Nursing Home Standards of Care, Nursing Home Neglect, Pharmacokinetics, Dietary and Herbal Supplements, Medication Errors, Medication Side Effects, Adverse Dr...
Click for Full Listing and Contact Info

Susan M Skolly-Danziger, PharmD, MS, CPh, DABAT Psychiatric Affiliates, PA

Maitland, Florida
Pharmacist Expert Witness, Toxicology Expert Witness - DUI Alcohol or Drugs, Drugs of Abuse Testing, Effects of Drugs on Behavior, Illicit Drug Synthesis, Drug/Drug Interactions, Poisoning, Medication Errors, Overdose, Hospital-Related Medication Errors, Adverse Effects of Drugs, Forensic Toxicology, Natural Products, Pharmacology
Diplomate of the American Board of Applied Toxicology, Florida Consultant Pharmacist
Click for Full Listing and Contact Info

Nakia Shaw, Pharm.D McArthur's Apothecary

Douglasville, Georgia
Pharmacist Expert Witness - pharmacy regulations, pharmacy standards of care, pharmacist medical malpractice, drug utilization reviews, medication errors, adverse drug reactions, Medicare and Medicaid
Dr. Shaw (Pharm-D) is a Board-Certified Doctor of Pharmacy with a specialization in numerous disease states. He has a specialization certification in Nuclear Medication. Dr. Shaw is also a Reviewing Medical Officer/Independent Practitioner for The Department of Labor/Federal Occupational Health (nationally and state specific). Dr. Shaw has been a Reviewing Adjudication Officer for Healthcare for the State of Georgia for CMS/Medicaid through the Dept of Health. Dr. Shaw has been in practice as clinical/compound/adjudication pharmacist since 1999 in many diverse settings including hospital, hospital transitional care, community clinic, critical care, compounding, and retail. In addition Dr. Shaw has served in a variety of leadership roles that have contributed to his experience as an expert witness. In particular, Dr. Shaw has extensive experience reviewing cases related to diagnostic errors, pre and post-operative management, hospital in-patient treatment, hospital out-patient treat...
Click for Full Listing and Contact Info

Jerry Allen Spivey, Jr, MD, RPh, D.ABA, CIME Spivey Medical LLC

Greensboro, Georgia
Anesthesiology Expert Witness, Pain Management - Medicine Expert Witness - Anesthesiology, Addiction Medicine, Pharmacist
Multiple board certifications: Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine by American Board of Anesthesiology, Addiction Medicine by American board of Preventative Medicine, Certified Independent Medical Examiner by the American Board of Independent Medical Examiners. Former owner and pharmacist in charge of successful independent pharmacy. Additional training as a pharmacist in diabetes education of patients, asthma education of patients and immunizations. All of this training was very helpful in medical school, residency and clinical practice. Left the successful pharmacy for medical school, residency in anesthesiology and fellowship in pain medicine. Since finishing my training a majority of time in interventional pain management. I became very proficient in performing the pain relieving procedures including but not limited to cervical, thoracic and lumbar translaminar and transforaminal epidural steroid injections, radiofrequency ablation of medial branches, lateral branches and peripher...
Click for Full Listing and Contact Info

Glenn S. Balas, RPH

Chicago, Illinois
Pharmacist Expert Witness - Retail Pharmacist, Experienced, Overdose, Prescriptions, Drug-Food Interactions, Pharmacy Practice, Medication Misuse/Abuse, Medication, Error, Adverse Drug, Pharmacy,
With over 45 years in the pharmacy industry, Glenn Balas has honed his craft, excelling in various aspects of the industry, from retail pharmacy operations and compliance issues to inventory management and patient consultations. As a licensed pharmacist and former pharmacist owner, Balas has combined his clinical expertise and entrepreneurial business acumen to increase revenue, streamline operational processes, and improve the quality and level of patient care. His proven expertise has not only helped countless patients, but also pharmaceutical representatives, medical professionals, healthcare organizations, and insurance providers. From his long and distinguished career in the pharmacy industry, education and professional growth has always been at the forefront of Balas’ career. With a Doctorate of Pharmacy and as a member of the American Pharmacist Association and American Diabetic Association, Mr. Balas has stayed at the forefront of medication and pharmaceutical management i...
Click for Full Listing and Contact Info

Gourang P. Patel, Pharm.D Critical Care Education

Inverness, Illinois
Pharmacist Expert Witness, Pharmacology- Clinical Expert Witness - Medication, Error, Toxicology, Adverse Drug, Pharmacology, Clinical Trials, Pharmacy, Critical Care, Intensive Care Unit, Prescription, Prevention, Operating Room Medication Safety
Specialization of pharmacology and toxicology of medications utilized both in the hospital and retail pharmacy settings. Detailed analysis of medication errors, adverse drug reactions, and providing strategies for prevention. Particular focus on practice of pharmacy, medication side effects, and medication safety.
Click for Full Listing and Contact Info

Paul A. Arpino, PharmD

Newton, Massachusetts
Pharmacist Expert Witness, Pharmaceutical Regulation Expert Witness - Hospital and Ambulatory Pharmacy Practice, Standards of Pharmacy Practice, Medication Errors, Medication Safety, Adverse Drug Reactions, Drug Interactions, Standard of Care, Anticoagulation, Pharmacy Standards, Therapeutic Drug Monitoring, Pharmacy regulations
Extensive knowledge in pharmacy practice, regulatory compliance, medication management and standards of pharmacy practice across a variety of patient care settings. Board Certification in Pharmacotherapy (BCPS). Available as a consultant for both plaintiff and defense cases.
Click for Full Listing and Contact Info

Karen M. Ryle, MS, RPh Massachusetts Board of Pharmacy

Quincy, Massachusetts
Pharmacist Expert Witness, Pharmacology- Clinical Expert Witness - Experience in Retail, Community and Hospital Pharmacies. Medication Errors, Wrongful Death, Prescription Drug Abuse, Prescription Drug Monitoring Program, Drug Overdose, Opioid Use Disorder, Pharmacy Standards of Practice, Pharmacy Law, Pharmaceutical Standard of Care, Drug Interactions.
Extensive knowledge in Board of Pharmacy Regulations, Pharmacy Standards of Practice, Prescription Drug Abuse, MS Degree in Drug Regulatory Affairs, over 30 years of experience in community pharmacy and hospital practice, Member of the Massachusetts Board of Pharmacy for 15 years. Testified in Civil and Federal Court.
Click for Full Listing and Contact Info

Kristin M Engebretsen, PharmD, DABAT

Cannon Falls , Minnesota
Pharmacist Expert Witness, Toxicology Expert Witness - Board certified Clinical Toxicologist Clinical Professor -University of Minnesota College of Pharmacy Bedside, bench and laboratory research (animal and human) Medical/legal expert testimony
I am a clinical toxicologist at a level 1 trauma center. Approximately 45% of my time is spent in the ER or in the ICU/on the hospital floors doing bedside exams and consults on overdosed or toxic patients. 45% of my time is spent teaching medical students, medical residents and medical fellows in toxicology. 10% of my time is spent doing research. I am the past president of the American Board of Applied Toxicology and have been on the board for 9 years. I have been doing medical-legal cases for almost 20 years but typically only do a few cases a year as my primary practice is a clinical practice in the hospital. I have a strong CV and numerous publications. My CV and reviews can be found on other public websites such as LinkedIn etc. or available on request
Click for Full Listing and Contact Info

Sid Seal, R.Ph. Pharmacy Expert Witness Solutions, LLC

Oxford, Mississippi
Pharmacist Expert Witness - Pharmacy regulations, Pharmacy practice, Pharmacy standards of practice, Pharmaceutical diversion, Pharmacy case investigations, Pharmaceutical auditing
25+ years practice of pharmacy and 8+ years as a Sr. Compliance Agent with the Board of Pharmacy. Active in opioid crisis education and investigations.
Click for Full Listing and Contact Info

Joanne M Daprano, RPh, CGP

Baldwinsville, New York
Pharmacist Expert Witness, Pharmacology Expert Witness - Geriatrics, Pain Medication Management, Drug Interactions, Nursing Home Medical Management, Long Term Care, Medication Errors, Medication Monitoring, Adverse Drug Reaction, Nursing Homes-Drugs, Overdose, Quality Assurance, Consultant Pharmacist
Independent Consultant Pharmacist with more than 28 years of experience. Extensive knowledge of long-term care, medication management, standards of practice and medication errors. Specializing in dementia related behaviors, falls and pain management.
Click for Full Listing and Contact Info

Luke A. Probst, PharmD, BCPS Forensic Pharmacy Experts

Manlius, New York
Pharmacist Expert Witness, Pharmacology- Clinical Expert Witness - Pediatric Pharmacist, Prescribing Error, Drug Interaction, Drug Toxicity, Overdose, Pharmacy Error, Polypharmacy, Adverse Drug Reaction, Pharmacy Practice, Pharmacy Standards, Pharmacy malpractice, Drug Allergy
Dr. Probst is a consultative expert for medical litigation cases requiring pharmacological expertise. He has extensive pharmacy experience - including pediatrics - in academic medical centers and other practice settings, and he can opine on standard of care issues associated with medication errors. In addition to maintaining a hospital based pharmacy career, he has co-authored over a dozen articles, reviews manuscripts for several journals, has taught in nursing and medical courses, and delivered presentations at local, state and national meetings. He has maintained Board Certified Pharmacotherapy Specialist designation since 1998, is an active member of American Society of Health-System Pharmacists and New York State Council of Health System Pharmacists, and former member of the Pediatric Pharmacy Advocacy Group and American College of Clinical Pharmacy.
Click for Full Listing and Contact Info

Robert E Todd, M.D. Forensic Medical Associates LLC

Liverpool, New York
Neurology Expert Witness, Pharmacist Expert Witness - Medication Reviews, Medication Side Effects, Neurologic Sequelae of Medications, Toxic Nerve Injury, Nerve Injury, Electrical Injury, Traumatic Brain Injury, Concussion, Encephalopathy, Stroke, Neuritis, Neuralgia, Spinal Cord Injury, Lead Poisoning in adults
Bob is a Board Certified Neurologist practicing in Upstate New York where he trained. Prior to his medical career Bob was a Registered Pharmacist and owned his own business which included not only a professional pharmacy but also provided home care. Dr. Todd is well versed in compounded prescriptions and I.V. home therapy. Bob can provide you with a wealth of information in all aspects of neurology and medications used to treat not only neurologic conditions but all medical conditions because of his experience as a practicing pharmacist. Bob is equally comfortable working for the Defense or the Plaintiff.
Click for Full Listing and Contact Info

Cathy A Vaughan, PharmD

Durham, North Carolina
Pharmacist Expert Witness, Pharmacology- Clinical Expert Witness - Medication safety, Medication errors, Hospital and ambulatory pharmacy practice, Pharmacy standards, Quality assurance, Adverse drug reactions, Drug interactions, Critical care
I am a pharmacist with over 15 years of experience in both the ambulatory and hospital setting. Current practice setting is in a large academic medical center. I have expertise in a number of pharmacy practice areas including drug information, medication policy, medication safety and critical care. I have served as a legal consultant since 2012.
Click for Full Listing and Contact Info

William Simonson, PharmD, BCGP, FASCP Independent Consultant Pharmacist

Corvallis, Oregon
Geriatrics Expert Witness, Pharmacist Expert Witness - Consultant Pharmacist, Nursing Home, Assisted Living, Adverse Drug Reaction, Drug Interaction, pharmacist, Medications, Drugs, Medication-related problem, Clinical Pharmacist, Drug Regimen Review, geriatric pharmacist, pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, side effects, geriatrics, medication errors
Dr. Simonson is an independent consultant clinical pharmacist. He has a part-time faculty position with Oregon State University and is active in lecturing, research and pharmacy practice. Simonson is a national thought leader on pharmacy and medication-related issues and is a Past President of the American Society of Consultant Pharmacists as well as former chair of the Commission for Certification in Geriatric Pharmacy. He provides expert witness services on medication-related matters in adults with a special focus on older adults. He holds Board Certification as a Geriatric Pharmacist. While he is not a full-time expert witness he has provided expert consultation on a wide variety of medication-related matters including: dispensing and prescribing errors, adverse drug side-effects and drug interactions, allergies to medications, medication-related fatal events, standards of pharmacy practice, standards of medication use in nursing homes and assisted living facilities, and other is...
Click for Full Listing and Contact Info

David Clay Griffin, RPh Griffin Pharmacy Consultants, LLC

Cleburne, Texas
Pharmacist Expert Witness - Pharmacy Standards, Medication Errors, Drug Interactions, Medication Overdose and Underdose, Medication Interaction, Pharmaceuticals Adverse Reactions, Pharmacy Safety and Counseling, Pharmacist Duty to Warn, Adverse Drug Reactions, Drug Interaction, Controlled Substance Policies, DUI/DWI
Over 30 years of experience in retail and community pharmacies and still actively working as a pharmacist and pharmacy manager. Well-versed in practice standards and pharmacy operations, including controlled substance laws & policies as well as financials, inventory, sales & pricing, and staff supervision & training.
Click for Full Listing and Contact Info

Kathleen F Jackson, R.Ph., Ph.D. (H.C.), FIACP Jackson Audit and Compliance

Alvin, Texas
Pharmacist Expert Witness, Pharmaceutical Regulation Expert Witness - USP <797> <795> <800>, Sterile and non-sterile compounding, FDA 503(a) and (b), State Inspections, Accreditation, Compliance, Critical Point Training, NABP, PCAB, Inspections, FDA Drug Compliance Expert
Kathleen Jackson is a licensed and experienced 36+ year pharmacist with specialized training and experience in compounding and compliance with regulations. She owned and operated a community pharmacy with an emphasis on compounding for 22 years. She has most recently received an NABP Inspector Certification (CISCI) in November 2018. Kathleen was also previously accepted by FDA to monitor a pharmacy as a Drug Compliance Expert. She has presented at several PCCA International Seminars as well as local community clubs and organizations. Kathleen was awarded "Pharmacist of the Month" in March 2002 by PCCA (Professional Compounding Centers of America). She has performed inspections and prepared reports to Boards of Pharmacy related to license suspensions/probation orders. Kathleen has co-authored two articles on Root Cause Analysis in the IJPC (International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding). She has also authored several articles in the Texas Pharmacy magazine and the US Pharm...
Click for Full Listing and Contact Info
You can also find Pharmacist Expert Witnesses in:
Massachusetts, Illinois, New York, California, Minnesota, Texas, Florida, Arkansas, Mississippi, Georgia, Oregon , and North Carolina