Amputations Expert Witnesses

Amputations expert witnesses and consultants listed here may be able to form expert opinions, draft expert witness reports, provide expert witness testimony at deposition and/or trial as or serve as consulting (non-testifying) experts on amputations. The amputations expert witness listings on this page are typically from fields/areas of expertise such as: Foot & Ankle Surgery, Life Care Planning, Long Term Care, Nurse, Orthopedic Surgery, Pain Management - Medicine, Physical Medicine & Rehab, Podiatry, Trauma Surgery, Vocational Rehabilitation, and Wound Care.

E. Franklin Livingstone, MD, MRM, FAAPM&R, FAADEP, DABPM&R, DAAPM General Rehab. Medicine & Electrodiagnosis

Lake Havasu City, Arizona
Physical Medicine & Rehab, Life Care Planning - Injury, illness, impairment, disability, independent medical evaluations, life care planning, causation, prognosis, extent and treatment of disability, electrodiagnosis (EMG/NCV), spinal cord injury, stroke, amputations, head injuries, chronic pain, myofascial pain syndrome
Dr. Livingstone is a physical medicine and rehabilitation specialist (Physiatrist) in lake Havasu City, Arizona. He practices general and forensic physiatry and electrodiagnosis (EMG?NCV testing). He is board certified by the American Board of Physical medicine and Rehabilitation, having developed an interest in this field because of is personal experience after a motor vehicle collision resulted in spine and spinal cord injuries and L-2 level paraplegia at the age of eighteen. He is a diplomate of the American Board of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, a diplomate of the American Association of Pain Management, a fellow of the American Academy of Physical medicine and Rehabilitation, and a fellow of the American Academy of Disability Evaluating physicians, and a fellow of the American College of forensic Examiners. Clinical interests include spinal cord injury, electrodiagnosis (EMG/NCV: diagnosing peripheral nerve injuries / disease), independent medical examinations, myof...

Eman Elmi, DPM Diablo Foot and Ankle

Walnut Creek, California
Podiatry, Foot & Ankle Surgery - Foot and Ankle Pain, Foot and Ankle Surgery, Foot and Ankle Fractures, Foot and Ankle Trauma, Standard of Care, Malpractice, Bunions, Chronic Foot and Ankle Pain, Ankle Arthritis, Diabetic Limb Salvage, Complex Regional Pain Syndrome, Amputations
Dr. Elmi is a Foot and Ankle Specialist in private practice in Walnut Creek, CA. He is board certified by the American Board of Podiatric Medicine. He has been serving as an expert witness in his field since 2015, in addition to regularly performing IMEs. After completing his medical training at CSPM in 2012, Dr. Elmi was then accepted to a top residency program at St. Mary's Medical Center in San Francisco, where he served as Chief Resident. He received extensive medical and surgical training for patients of all age groups and medical backgrounds. Thereafter, Dr. Elmi went into private practice in Marin County, and served as the Chief of Podiatric Medicine & Surgery at Marin General Hospital for 4 years. He then moved his practice to Walnut Creek in 2021, joining BASS Medical Group, a conglomerate multispecialty group of surgeons across many specialties. Additionally, he remains the director of Podiatry at the Marin Community Clinics, an FQHC which he has been volunteering at since...

Mark Conklin, MD Panorama Orthopedic and Spine center

Golden, Colorado
Orthopedic Surgery, Foot & Ankle Surgery - Bunions, Hammertoes, Neuromas, Metatarsal Osteotomies, Bunionettes, Foot and Ankle Fractures, Midfoot and Hindfoot Fusions, Ankle Fusions, Ankle Replacements, Great Toe Fusion, Great Toe Replacements, Ankle Arthroscopy, Ankle Lateral Ligament Reconstructions, Achilles, tendon repairs, Amputations.
Leadership positions: Past Chairman of the Lutheran Medical Center Orthopedic Department. Past President of Woodridge Orthopedic and Spine Center. Past President of Golden Ridge Surgery Center. Past President of the Rocky Mountain Foot and Ankle Club. Past President of Panorama Orthopedic and Spine Center. Past Member of the AAOS Board of Councilors. Current President of the Colorado Orthopedic Society. Affiliations: Member of the American Foot and Ankle Society. Member of the American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons. Member of the Board of the Colorado Orthopedic Society. Level 2 Certified in Workers Compensation. I have written articles and chapters on foot and ankle conditions. I have given presentations at local, regional and national meetings on foot and ankle problems. I have more than 20 years of experience in doing total ankle replacements.

Jeffrey T. Kiel, Ph.D., CRC, CVE, FVE, CCM, CEAS, CLCP, ABVE/D Vocational Solutions, LLC

Colorado
Vocational Rehabilitation, Life Care Planning - Board Certified Vocational Expert, Board Certified Life Care Planner, Loss of Future Earnings, Earnings Capacity, Life Care Planner, Life Care Plan Reviews, Self-Employment Earnings Capacity, Pediatric Wage Loss, Traumatic Brain Injuries, Oil and Gas Injuries, amputations
Dr. Jeffrey Kiel is the Managing Partner at Vocational Solutions, LLC, headquartered in San Antonio, Texas. He has been retained as a Forensic Expert witness and a Life Care Planner across several states and for the United States Attorney's Office. Dr, Kiel is a Vocational Rehabilitation Counselor, Certified Rehabilitation Counselor, Certified Life Care Planner, Certified Vocational Evaluator, Certified Ergonomic Assessment Specialist, and Registered Forensic Vocational Expert Witness with 20 years of experience. Additionally, Dr. Kiel has been retained as an Expert Witness in matters including ADA, Personal Injury, Employment Discrimination, Medical Malpractice, Worker's Compensation, Long-Term Disability, and Divorce/Family Law cases. He enjoys complex cases and teaching. Dr. Kiel's work involves a split between Judicial and non-Judicial work. His work experience involves many facets of Vocational Rehabilitation Counseling and Life Care Planning including working with individ...

Santo Steve BiFulco, MD, CLCP BiFulco Medical Group

Tampa, Florida
Life Care Planning, Physical Medicine & Rehab - Damages. Certified Life Care Planner. Testifying & Treating MD on matters involving future care, permanency, causation, and life expectancy for defense and plaintiff firms. Brain Injuries from mTBI to severe, Amputations, Burns, Multi-Trauma, Orthopedic Injuries, Chronic Pain.
Dr. BiFulco is a licensed physician in the State of Florida & New York; Dr. BiFulco holds specialty training & certifications in Interventional Pain Management, Radio-Frequency, & Intra-Discal Therapies. Dr. BiFulco is licensed by the United States Drug Enforcement Agency to prescribe. Dr. BiFulco is a Board-Certified Physician Life Care Planner. Dr. BiFulco’s professional career includes decades of clinical practice, treating over 100 thousand patients with all manners of acute, chronic, & catastrophic injuries and illnesses. Dr. BiFulco has occupied numerous medical directorships and medically-oriented advisorship positions. As a medical doctor/entrepreneur, Dr. BiFulco founded and managed successful clinical practices and medical centers. Dr. BiFulco’s professional associations include the American Academy of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, the American Medical Association, the National Association of Disability Evaluating Professionals, the International Association for...

Jeffrey T. Kiel, Ph.D., CRC, CVE, FVE, CCM, CEAS, CLCP, ABVE/D Vocational Solutions, LLC

Florida
Vocational Rehabilitation, Life Care Planning - Board Certified Vocational Expert, Board Certified Life Care Planner, Loss of Future Earnings, Earnings Capacity, Life Care Planner, Life Care Plan Reviews, Self-Employment Earnings Capacity, Pediatric Wage Loss, Traumatic Brain Injuries, Oil and Gas Injuries, amputations
Dr. Jeffrey Kiel is the Managing Partner at Vocational Solutions, LLC, headquartered in San Antonio, Texas. He has been retained as a Forensic Expert witness and a Life Care Planner across several states and for the United States Attorney's Office. Dr, Kiel is a Vocational Rehabilitation Counselor, Certified Rehabilitation Counselor, Certified Life Care Planner, Certified Vocational Evaluator, Certified Ergonomic Assessment Specialist, and Registered Forensic Vocational Expert Witness with 20 years of experience. Additionally, Dr. Kiel has been retained as an Expert Witness in matters including ADA, Personal Injury, Employment Discrimination, Medical Malpractice, Worker's Compensation, Long-Term Disability, and Divorce/Family Law cases. He enjoys complex cases and teaching. Dr. Kiel's work involves a split between Judicial and non-Judicial work. His work experience involves many facets of Vocational Rehabilitation Counseling and Life Care Planning including working with individ...

Mike M. Pappas, DO

Florida
Physical Medicine & Rehab, Pain Management - Medicine - Nursing Homes, Life care planning, Physical medicine and rehabilitation, Pain management, Traumatic brain injury, TBI, Spinal cord injury, amputations, complex regional pain syndrome, CRPS, IME, Pharmaceutical review, Herniated discs
Life care planning, Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Pain Management Testifying and treating physician for catastrophic injuries involving Future Care, Permanency, Causation, and Life expectancy for both defense and plaintiff firms. Mild/severe Traumatic Brain Injury, Amputations, Burns, Multi-trauma, Orthopedic injuries, Chronic pain, Complex Regional Pain Syndrome, Pressure ulcers, Joint replacement complications, Peripheral nerve injuries, Cervical and Lumbar Spine Injuries. Licensed physician in NY in practice and board certified in Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Experienced Medical Expert. Clinical instructor at Mount Sinai Medical Center with over 15 years experience. 15 plus years of experience in sub acute facilities/skilled nursing facilities overseeing the rehabilitation of Spinal Cord injuries, Traumatic Brain Injuries, Amputations, Joint Replacements. Medical malpractice, Utilization Reviews, Health Insurance Claims, Workers Compensation, Independent Me...

Barbara Bate, RN, CRRN, CCM, CNLCP, CMGT-BC, LNCC, CHLCP, CBIS Northeast Life Care Planning, Inc.

Holden, Maine
Life Care Planning, Nurse - Nurse Case Manager, Medical Cost Projections, Nurse Life Care Planning, Nurse Life Care Planner, Life Care Plans, Life Care Planner, Life Care Planning, Medicare Set-Asides, Traumatic Brain Injury, Spinal Cord Injury, Cerebral Palsy, Pediatrics, Amputations, Birth Injuries
Barbara Bate is Principal of Northeast Life Care Planning, Inc. (NLCP®), a nurse consulting company, providing a variety of services nationwide, including medical case management, medical file reviews/chronologies, medical cost projections, Medicare set-aside allocations/conditional payment review, as well as life care plan development/review. Barbara has over 40 years of experience as a registered nurse and holds certifications in Rehabilitation Nursing (CRRN), Legal Nurse Consulting (LNCC), Case Management (CCM, CMGT-BC), Life Care Planning (CNLCP®, CHLCP™), and Brain Injury (CBIS). She has provided medical case management services for patients with severe injuries such as traumatic brain injury, spinal cord injury, amputations, and orthopedic injuries since 1994 in addition to clinical work experience in the Operating Room, Recovery Room, Pediatrics and Obstetrics. Her life care planning experience includes working with individuals diagnosed with multiple trauma, chronic pain, ...

Cynthia M. Bourbeau, RN, CRRN, CCM, CNLCP Medical and Life Care Consulting Services, Inc.

Belchertown, Massachusetts
Life Care Planning, Nurse - Rehabilitation Nurse Case Manager, Catastrophic Nurse Case Manager, Legal Nurse Consultant, & Medico-legal professional in the areas of Life Care Planning, Life Care Plan Projections, and Life Care Plan Critiques for injuries including Spinal Cord, Amputations, Burns, Brain, Birth & Cerebral Palsy
Mrs. Bourbeau is a Massachusetts Registered Nurse and certified as a Rehabilitation Nurse, Case Manager, Nurse Life Care Planner, and Legal Nurse Consultant. She has worked as a nursing professional for 40 years and currently leads Medical and Life Care Consulting Services, a practice of professional nurse consultants and case managers who provide Medical Case Management, Medico-legal services, including life care planning, and ancillary professional nurse consulting services. Services include, but are not limited to, consulting and being an expert witness of individuals with the following: • Orthopedic and Neurological Injury and Illness, • Traumatic Brain Injury, • Spinal Cord Injury, • Amputations, • Burns, • Catastrophic Injuries/Multiple Trauma, • Chronic Pain, • CRPS, • Traumatic and Anoxic Brain Injury, • Birth and Pediatric Injuries • and Cerebral Palsy. As a Nurse Life Care Planner, Cynthia Bourbeau has completed hundreds of Life Care Plans, Life Care P...

David Haustein, MD, MBA, CLCP PM Consulting

Springfield, Missouri
Physical Medicine & Rehab, Life Care Planning - Neuromuscular Medicine, Electrodiagnosic Medicine, Neuropathy, Amputations, Musculoskeletal, Neurologic, Orthopedic, Rehabilitation, Physiatry, EMG, LCP, Medicolegal Review, IME, Chart Review, Radiculopathies, Spine, Amputee, Disability, Impairment, Expert Opinion
As a board-certified physician specializing in Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, I care for patients requiring neurological, orthopedic, and musculoskeletal rehabilitation. I am also a certified life care planner and specialize in life care plan creation and review for individuals who have experienced serious injury or illness. I serve on many university and national committees and editorial boards and regularly present locally, regionally, and nationally. I serve as faculty with the University of Missouri-Columbia School of Medicine and am board-certified in PM&R with additional subspecialty certification in neuromuscular medicine.

David G Smithson, MD, CLCP David G. Smithson, MD, PC

Kansas City, Missouri
Physical Medicine & Rehab, Life Care Planning - Catastrophic Injuries, Spinal Cord Injury, Brain Injury, Neurology Disorders, Amputations, Stroke, Trauma, Disability, Spinal Disorder, Orthopedics Non-Surgical, Head Injury
Private practice, medical/legal consultation. Board Certified Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Certified Life Care Planner. Experienced Medical Director Inpatient Acute Rehabilitation.

Mike M. Pappas, DO

New Jersey
Physical Medicine & Rehab, Pain Management - Medicine - Nursing Homes, Life care planning, Physical medicine and rehabilitation, Pain management, Traumatic brain injury, TBI, Spinal cord injury, amputations, complex regional pain syndrome, CRPS, IME, Pharmaceutical review, Herniated discs
Life care planning, Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Pain Management Testifying and treating physician for catastrophic injuries involving Future Care, Permanency, Causation, and Life expectancy for both defense and plaintiff firms. Mild/severe Traumatic Brain Injury, Amputations, Burns, Multi-trauma, Orthopedic injuries, Chronic pain, Complex Regional Pain Syndrome, Pressure ulcers, Joint replacement complications, Peripheral nerve injuries, Cervical and Lumbar Spine Injuries. Licensed physician in NY in practice and board certified in Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Experienced Medical Expert. Clinical instructor at Mount Sinai Medical Center with over 15 years experience. 15 plus years of experience in sub acute facilities/skilled nursing facilities overseeing the rehabilitation of Spinal Cord injuries, Traumatic Brain Injuries, Amputations, Joint Replacements. Medical malpractice, Utilization Reviews, Health Insurance Claims, Workers Compensation, Independent Me...

Jeffrey T. Kiel, Ph.D., CRC, CVE, FVE, CCM, CEAS, CLCP, ABVE/D Vocational Solutions, LLC

New Mexico
Vocational Rehabilitation, Life Care Planning - Board Certified Vocational Expert, Board Certified Life Care Planner, Loss of Future Earnings, Earnings Capacity, Life Care Planner, Life Care Plan Reviews, Self-Employment Earnings Capacity, Pediatric Wage Loss, Traumatic Brain Injuries, Oil and Gas Injuries, amputations
Dr. Jeffrey Kiel is the Managing Partner at Vocational Solutions, LLC, headquartered in San Antonio, Texas. He has been retained as a Forensic Expert witness and a Life Care Planner across several states and for the United States Attorney's Office. Dr, Kiel is a Vocational Rehabilitation Counselor, Certified Rehabilitation Counselor, Certified Life Care Planner, Certified Vocational Evaluator, Certified Ergonomic Assessment Specialist, and Registered Forensic Vocational Expert Witness with 20 years of experience. Additionally, Dr. Kiel has been retained as an Expert Witness in matters including ADA, Personal Injury, Employment Discrimination, Medical Malpractice, Worker's Compensation, Long-Term Disability, and Divorce/Family Law cases. He enjoys complex cases and teaching. Dr. Kiel's work involves a split between Judicial and non-Judicial work. His work experience involves many facets of Vocational Rehabilitation Counseling and Life Care Planning including working with individ...

Mike M. Pappas, DO

Astoria, New York
Physical Medicine & Rehab, Pain Management - Medicine - Nursing Homes, Life care planning, Physical medicine and rehabilitation, Pain management, Traumatic brain injury, TBI, Spinal cord injury, amputations, complex regional pain syndrome, CRPS, IME, Pharmaceutical review, Herniated discs
Life care planning, Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Pain Management Testifying and treating physician for catastrophic injuries involving Future Care, Permanency, Causation, and Life expectancy for both defense and plaintiff firms. Mild/severe Traumatic Brain Injury, Amputations, Burns, Multi-trauma, Orthopedic injuries, Chronic pain, Complex Regional Pain Syndrome, Pressure ulcers, Joint replacement complications, Peripheral nerve injuries, Cervical and Lumbar Spine Injuries. Licensed physician in NY in practice and board certified in Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Experienced Medical Expert. Clinical instructor at Mount Sinai Medical Center with over 15 years experience. 15 plus years of experience in sub acute facilities/skilled nursing facilities overseeing the rehabilitation of Spinal Cord injuries, Traumatic Brain Injuries, Amputations, Joint Replacements. Medical malpractice, Utilization Reviews, Health Insurance Claims, Workers Compensation, Independent Me...

Laurence Z Cane, DPM, FACFAS, FAPWCA Caromont Foot & Ankle

Gastonia, North Carolina
Foot & Ankle Surgery, Podiatry - Bunion, Hammer toe, Osteomyelitis, Diabetic Foot Ulcers, Charcot Deformity, Gangrene, Amputations, Foot Pain, Foot and Ankle Trauma, Neoplasm, Foot Infections, Complications, Wound Care, Standard of Care Expert, Complex Regional Pain Syndrome, Gout, Heel Spur, Reconstruction Surgery, Bone, Forensic
I am a native of Philadelphia, PA and pursued my undergraduate degree at Michigan State University. From there, I went to Rosalind Franklin University in Chicago, IL to earn my doctoral in Podiatric Medicine and Surgery. I completed my three surgical residency in the Pittsburgh, PA area and subsequent 1 year fellowship training in adult reconstructive surgery, limb salvage medicine and surgery, and external fixation in Youngstown, OH. I hold two board certifications with the American Board of Foot and Ankle Surgeons in Foot surgery and Reconstructive/Rearfoot and Ankle Surgery. I also hold board certification in wound care with American Profession Wound Care Association. I train consistently throughout the years on various products and companies that pertain to foot and ankle surgery. I currently hold directorship of Podiatry for the hospital I serve. I have significant experience in foot and ankle surgery, especially in the areas of the diabetic foot and ankle, bone and soft...

Jeffrey T. Kiel, Ph.D., CRC, CVE, FVE, CCM, CEAS, CLCP, ABVE/D Vocational Solutions, LLC

San Antonio, Texas
Vocational Rehabilitation, Life Care Planning - Board Certified Vocational Expert, Board Certified Life Care Planner, Loss of Future Earnings, Earnings Capacity, Life Care Planner, Life Care Plan Reviews, Self-Employment Earnings Capacity, Pediatric Wage Loss, Traumatic Brain Injuries, Oil and Gas Injuries, amputations
Dr. Jeffrey Kiel is the Managing Partner at Vocational Solutions, LLC, headquartered in San Antonio, Texas. He has been retained as a Forensic Expert witness and a Life Care Planner across several states and for the United States Attorney's Office. Dr, Kiel is a Vocational Rehabilitation Counselor, Certified Rehabilitation Counselor, Certified Life Care Planner, Certified Vocational Evaluator, Certified Ergonomic Assessment Specialist, and Registered Forensic Vocational Expert Witness with 20 years of experience. Additionally, Dr. Kiel has been retained as an Expert Witness in matters including ADA, Personal Injury, Employment Discrimination, Medical Malpractice, Worker's Compensation, Long-Term Disability, and Divorce/Family Law cases. He enjoys complex cases and teaching. Dr. Kiel's work involves a split between Judicial and non-Judicial work. His work experience involves many facets of Vocational Rehabilitation Counseling and Life Care Planning including working with individ...

Jayesh B Shah, MD TIMEO2 Healing Concepts, LLC

San Antonio, Texas
Wound Care, Long Term Care - Hyperbaric Medicine, Pressure Ulcer, Arterial Ulcer, Diabetic Ulcer, Unusual Wounds, Lymphedema, Geriatrics, Amputations, Nursing Homes, Venous Ulcer, Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy, Bed Sores, Long Term Care, Pressure sores, wound care medical director
Award winning wound care and hyperbaric physician in active clinical practice. Columbia trained. Numerous leadership roles in multiple medical societies including Former Chair for the American College of Certified Wound Specialists. Extensive public speaking experience – well over 150 invited presentations. Multiple time contributing author to Wound Care Certification Study Guide. Assistant Chief Editor, American College of Clinical Wound Specialist Journal. Awards include the Paul J. Sheffield Education Award for Lifetime Dedication to Education in the Field of Undersea and Hyperbaric Medicine, The Jefferson C. Davis Award for Excellence in Clinical Hyperbaric Medicine, and the Carolyn Sue Ray Memorial Award for Excellence in Hyperbaric Medicine. Experienced Medical Director for wound care services at two different facilities. Research interest in unusual wounds, transcutaneous oxygen studies, limb salvage, wound healing, offloading, prevention of ulcer recurrence, veno...

Romney C. Andersen, MD Andersen Orthopaedics, LLC

Newport News, Virginia
Orthopedic Surgery, Trauma Surgery - Compartment Syndrome, Amputations, Fracture Care, Limb Salvage, Orthopaedic Trauma, Soft Tissue Trauma, Osteoporosis, Extremity Injuries, Crush Injuries, Gun Shot Injuries, Motor Vehicle Injuries, Work Place Injuries, Military Injuries, Maritime Injuries, Railway Injuries and Orthopaedic Infections.
Romney C. Andersen, MD, AAOS Fellow, ABOS Board Certified. Dr. Andersen is an Orthopaedic Surgeon with more than 20 years of experience managing orthopaedic trauma patients. He has published extensively in the area of orthopaedic trauma. His areas of specialty include Compartment Syndrome, Amputations, Fracture Care, Limb Salvage, Orthopaedic Trauma, Soft Tissue Trauma, Osteoporosis, Extremity Injuries, Crush Injuries, Gun Shot Injuries, Motor Vehicle Injuries, Work Place Injuries, Military Injuries, Maritime Injuries, Railway Injuries and Orthopaedic Infections. Dr. Andersen is the Chief of Orthopaedics for the Riverside Health System and is a practicing orthopaedic trauma surgeon. He is a Professor of Surgery at the Virginia College of Osteopathic Medicine, Formally he was the Chairman of Orthopaedics at the Walter Reed National Military Medical Center and oversaw the training program of 38 trainees, and an attending staff of 26 surgeons. Dr. Andersen has testified in court...

Kyle Scholnick, DPM

Fairfax, Virginia
Podiatry, Foot & Ankle Surgery - Podiatry, Foot and Ankle surgery, Bunion, Hammer toe, Hallux Valgus, Osteomyelitis, Diabetic foot ulcers, Charcot deformity, Gangrene, Amputations, Foot Pain, Foot and Ankle Trauma, Neoplasm, Foot Infections, Cancer, Complications, Foot Reconstruction, Wound Care, Standard of Care Expert, deformity
Summa Cum Laude graduate from The George Washington University and completed medical degree from Temple University School of Podiatric Medicine, graduating at the top of his class and with honors and awards for academic excellence. Completed a rigorous three-year comprehensive foot and ankle surgical residency at the prestigious Yale University Hospital in New Haven, Connecticut, serving as chief resident in his final year. This is one of top and most competitive foot and ankle surgical residencies in the world. Completed a podiatric dermatology fellowship with Bako Podiatric Pathology Services in Alpharetta, Georgia focusing on malignant soft tissue cancers, neoplasms, infections, biopsy techniques and plastic surgery. Advanced training in all aspects of podiatric medicine and surgery, including forefoot reconstruction, flatfoot reconstruction, diabetic foot reconstruction, wound care, limb salvage, skin grafting, external fixation, plastic flap reconstruction, sports medicine,...